A Guide to Lithium Batteries

The following guide contains general information about Lithium Batteries for golf carts and utility vehicles.

Traditionally, electric golf carts have been powered by lead-acid batteries in either 36 Volt (6 x 6V batteries) or 48 Volt (4 x 12V, 6 x 8V or 8x 6V) configurations. Lithium batteries, although a more recent technology, have been powering our mobile phones, cameras, laptops and other devices for the past couple of decades. More recently, a lithium technology called LiFePO4 (Lithium-iron Phosphate) has become the battery of choice for industrial and electric vehicle applications largely to its improved safety, non-toxic composition and improved recyclability. 

Why choose Lithium?

Lithium batteries offer many benefits over traditional lead-acid batteries, with the major ones including:

  • No maintenance; compared to lead-acids which require water to be added regularly and suffer from terminal corrosion and permanent damage if discharged too far.
  • Shorter Charging times; saving you time and reducing vehicle down-time.
  • Less weight; Typically 100kg + weight saving which can further increase range and vehicle performance.
  • Longer lifetime; Lithium batteries are typically rated for 2,000+ cycles (the number of times a battery is fully charged and discharged). Lead-acid batteries are typically rated for 500-800 cycles, with greater performance degradation during this time.



2000+ Cycles
Battery Cycles
500-800 Cycles
Up to 10+ Years Battery lifetime
3-5 Years
~5 Hours (fully discharged) Charge time
Charge Time
10+ Hours (fully discharged)
No memory, can go months without charging Charge frequency
Charge Frequency
Regular charging to avoid damage
From 40kg
Typically 140 kg +
None MaintenanceMaintenance Regular watering, clearing corrosion from terminals, replacing battery cables
Sealed unit with internal Battery Management System for protection Safety
Acid leaks, flammable and harmful gasses during charging process

While lithium may outperform lead-acid in many scenarios, lead-acid still has some advantages. The most obvious of these is cost. Lead-acid replacement batteries are usually a cheaper alternative to a quality lithium setup.

Additionally, lead-acid batteries can normally handle very high current loads, making them suitable for low speed electric vehicles like golf carts. It's therefore important to choose a Lithium battery that can provide the high current loads demanded by golf carts and utility vehicles.

Key Components of a Lithium Battery

Lithium LiFePO4 cell1. Lithium Cells: It's important that batteries for electric vehicle applications use high quality A grade lithium cells capable of meeting the demanding performance requirements from golf carts and other vehicles. Inferior cells can result in shorter lifespan and lower vehicle performance. 

Electric circuit BMS Battery Management System
2. Battery Management System (BMS):
 The BMS is the brain of the battery, and ensures that the battery always remains in a safe state by protecting against short-circuits, over-voltage when charging, under-voltage, over-current and over-heating. 

Lithium Charger
3. Charger: 
It's important to use only a charger designed specifically for your type and size of lithium battery. Using a lead-acid charger or the incorrect specification charger could lead to permanent damage to your lithium battery. 

IMPORTANT: You should always look for the RCM compliance tick on your charger for legal use in Australia. Be wary of any manufacturers that do not display this logo on their chargers.

Types of Lithium Kits

There are two types of lithium replacement kits for golf and utility vehicles. These are the single-pack or commercial battery, and the modular or drop-in batteries. 

1. Single-pack / Commercial BatterySingle pack commercial battery
These kits use a single 48V or 36V LiFePO4 battery with a mounting kit designed to suit most popular Club Car, E-Z-GO and Yamaha vehicles, as well as the capability to be used in other types of vehicles.

  • Simple and robust architecture. All cells and BMS are mounted within a weather-resistant case. No need for cables between batteries
  • A more advanced BMS (Battery Management System) allowing for sleep-mode, more accurate state-of-charge reporting and detailed diagnostics
  • Higher peak current outputs for more demanding vehicles

See our Single-pack / Commercial kits

2. Modular Drop-in Lithium Batteries (Parallel)
Lithium modular drop-in kit

The modular kits are designed as a direct drop-in replacement for existing 6V, 8V or 12V cells. To ensure correct sizing, please check the product pages for dimensions. Kits are available for popular makes and models of golf cars, with on-board charging kits suitable for a wide range of vehicles including Polaris.


  • Easy installation; replacement of existing 6V, 8V or 12V lead acid batteries and wired in parallel (instructions provided)
  • Available in a wide range of capacities, and can be expanded with additional batteries
  • Compatible with most 36V or 48V electric vehicles
  • Easier delivery and transport due to lower size and weight

See our Modular Drop-in kits

Which Lithium kit is right for you?

Typically for commercial usage such as fleet golf, difficult terrain, heavy usage or if using a modified vehicle (upgraded controller/motor), we would recommend the single-pack commercial battery in either 67A or 105A capacity.

For personal golf and general usage, the modular drop-in batteries are a good choice due to their ease of transport (can be delivered to most locations), simple install (no bolting in brackets or lifting heavy batteries) and ability to expand capacity with additional batteries. Capacities range from 54A (2 batteries) up to 162A (6 batteries).

How much capacity do you need?

There is no easy answer here, and this is largely dependent on your make/model of vehicle, type of usage (golf, general transport) and environment/terrain.

The following is a general guide based on golf usage to help you select a suitable capacity. Additionally, we'd be happy to discuss your requirements via our web chat if you are unsure.

  • 54A (modular): suitable for up to 1 round (18 holes) played once or twice per week. Most users will be able to exceed this range and may in some cases achieve 2 rounds (36 holes)
  • 67A (Single-pack): suitable for up to 2 rounds (36 holes) on most courses 
  • 81A (modular): suitable for up to 2 rounds (36 holes) on most courses
  • 105A (single-pack): recommended for fleet golf users expecting over 2 rounds (>36 holes) from each charge in a very frequent use setting
  • 108A (modular): suitable for over 2 rounds (>36 holes) or heavy usage/modified carts

Contact us to discuss higher-capacity requirements or special vehicles.


To avoid serious damage or injury, we generally recommend installation by a professional for all of our products, however, kits such as the modular drop-in series can be installed at home with basic mechanical/electronic knowledge. 

We work with a number of installers across Australia, and would be happy to recommend someone local to you. Please contact us either via our contact form or email us at mail@voltrac.com.au